Computes the numerical Jacobian of `functions`

or the symbolic Jacobian of `characters`

in arbitrary orthogonal coordinate systems.

```
jacobian(
f,
var,
params = list(),
coordinates = "cartesian",
accuracy = 4,
stepsize = NULL
)
f %jacobian% var
```

- f
array of

`characters`

or a`function`

returning a`numeric`

array.- var
vector giving the variable names with respect to which the derivatives are to be computed and/or the point where the derivatives are to be evaluated. See

`derivative`

.- params
`list`

of additional parameters passed to`f`

.- coordinates
coordinate system to use. One of:

`cartesian`

,`polar`

,`spherical`

,`cylindrical`

,`parabolic`

,`parabolic-cylindrical`

or a vector of scale factors for each varibale.- accuracy
degree of accuracy for numerical derivatives.

- stepsize
finite differences stepsize for numerical derivatives. It is based on the precision of the machine by default.

`array`

.

The function is basically a wrapper for `gradient`

with `drop=FALSE`

.

`f %jacobian% var`

: binary operator with default parameters.

Guidotti E (2022). "calculus: High-Dimensional Numerical and Symbolic Calculus in R." Journal of Statistical Software, 104(5), 1-37. doi:10.18637/jss.v104.i05

Other differential operators:
`curl()`

,
`derivative()`

,
`divergence()`

,
`gradient()`

,
`hessian()`

,
`laplacian()`

```
### symbolic Jacobian
jacobian("x*y*z", var = c("x", "y", "z"))
#> [,1] [,2] [,3]
#> [1,] "y * z" "x * z" "x * y"
### numerical Jacobian in (x=1, y=2, z=3)
f <- function(x, y, z) x*y*z
jacobian(f = f, var = c(x=1, y=2, z=3))
#> [,1] [,2] [,3]
#> [1,] 6 3 2
### vectorized interface
f <- function(x) x[1]*x[2]*x[3]
jacobian(f = f, var = c(1, 2, 3))
#> [,1] [,2] [,3]
#> [1,] 6 3 2
### symbolic vector-valued functions
f <- c("y*sin(x)", "x*cos(y)")
jacobian(f = f, var = c("x","y"))
#> [,1] [,2]
#> [1,] "y * cos(x)" "sin(x)"
#> [2,] "cos(y)" "-(x * sin(y))"
### numerical vector-valued functions
f <- function(x) c(sum(x), prod(x))
jacobian(f = f, var = c(0,0,0))
#> [,1] [,2] [,3]
#> [1,] 1 1 1
#> [2,] 0 0 0
### binary operator
"x*y^2" %jacobian% c(x=1, y=3)
#> [,1] [,2]
#> [1,] 9 6
```